Places of Major Historical Importance In Southeastern Arizona
- Fort Bowie at Apache Pass: Dos Cabezas Mountains about 30 miles east of Willcox, AZ.
- Chiricahua National Monument: Chiricahua Mountains in the Coronado National Forest about 40 miles southeast of Willcox, AZ.
- Cochise Stronghold: Dragoon Mountains near the (almost) ghost town of Pearce, AZ.
- Fort Huachuca at Sierra Vista, AZ
- Fort Lowell in Tucson on Craycroft (see our video)
See the Apache Country Map.
Key Apache Leaders
- Mangas Coloradas, chief of the Bedonkohe Apaches, whose homeland stretched from the Rio Grande westward to include most of southwestern New Mexico. He was the father-in-law of Cochise.
- Cochise, chief of the Chokonen band of Chiricahua Apaches whose homeland encompassed northern Mexico (Sonora), southwestern New Mexico, and southeastern Arizona.
- Victorio, chief of the Chihenne or Warm Springs Apaches and successor to Mangas Coloradas.
- Juh (pronounced Whoa or Ho), a big, physically-imposing man and eventual war leader of the Nednhi band of Chiricahua Apaches whose homeland was the mountains of Chihuahua, northern Mexico. He was close to Geronimo, who often spoke for him as Juh was a stutterer.
- Goyathlay, a medicine man or shaman and eventual war leader of the Bedonkohe band of Chiricahua Apaches. He produced such fear in his Mexican enemies that, when he attacked, they would call out the name of their patron saint Jerome (Geronimo). He took it as his nickname.
Key U.S. Leaders
- Lt. George Bascom, whose poor judgment and treachery against Cochise in 1861 started the Apache Wars that lasted for 25 years, resulted in the death of thousands of Mexicans and White Eyes, and finally the near genocide of a once-proud people.
- General George Crook, veteran of the Civil War and Indian Wars. Tried to improve the Apache’s situation on the reservations. Was dismissed for failing to kill Geronimo or get his unconditional surrender.
- General Nelson Miles, a veteran of the Civil War, Indian Wars, and
Spanish-American War. Replaced Gen. Crook and, with 5000 U.S. soldiers and 600 Indian scouts, finally ran Geronimo and his 24 remaining warriors to ground in 1886.
- Captain Emmet Crawford served under General Crook in the final phase of the Apache Wars, from 1882 to January 1886, when he was
killed by Mexican soldiers in the Sierra Madre of Chihuahua while in pursuit of Geronimo. Crook had made Crawford commandant of the San Carlos Apache Reservation in 1882 to improve the miserable lot of the Indians there. Crawford was in command of the Apache scouts in hot pursuit of the hostiles.
- Lt. Charles Gatewood led Apache & Navajo scouts against Chief Victorio in 1879. In August 1886, despite failing health, Gatewood led his 25
regular soldiers and two Apache scouts into the Sierra Madre Mountains where he finally caught up with Geronimo and his band, now reduced to 20 men and 14 women and children. Gatewood persuaded Geronimo to surrender to General Miles, which he did on September 4th in Skeleton Canyon, Arizona, 65 miles south of Fort Bowie.
- Lt. Britton Davis served under Capt. Crawford in pursuit of hostile Apaches in General Crooks 1885-86 campaign against Geronimo. His memoir of that campaign, The Truth About Geronimo, was published in 1929.