A great deal has been written about Chiricahua Apaches, probably because they so completely terrorized settlers for a quarter century (1861-1886) and were the last Native American tribe to surrender to the United States government.
However, most of these books were written by Anglos. No matter how diligent the authors’ research, often the voices of the Chiricahua do not come through to the reader; or if they do, they are often filtered through military records, bureaucratic correspondence, and White ignorance and prejudice. There are two obvious exceptions. One is Geronimo: My Life (Native American), a self-serving autobiography. The other is Eve Ball’s Indeh: An Apache Odyssey, with New Maps, the transcribed recollections of Asa Daklugie, son of Chief Juh and nephew of Geronimo.
White Mountain Apaches
The Western Apaches, aka Tonto or White Mountain Apaches, who settled on the Fort Apache and San Carlos Reservations after they surrendered are not as well known as the Chiricahua. For a variety of reasons, they were easier for General Crook and his army to subdue. In fact, General Crook used White Mountain Apaches as scouts to hunt down renegade Chiricahua Apaches.
But once the Apache Wars were over in the late nineteenth century, the White Mountain Apaches on the Reservations lived in poverty under the authority of White Indian agents. Their children were forced into White run Indian Schools where their culture, history and Indian identity were taken from them. For very good reasons, they had an abiding distrust of White-Eyes. Read More